All Paternal Clans
The 15 clusters (or clans) that have so far been identified vary in frequency across geographical locations, but there is no specific association between genetic clans and tribal structures. This is a reflection of the great antiquity of our genetic roots, which predate our modern notions of race, tribe or other ethnic classification system by thousands of years.
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The maternal family tree assigns your mitochondrial DNA analysis result to one of 36 clans, each founded by one woman, whose names appear on our MatriLineTM World Clans certificate. Our YClan TM certificate is drawn along similar lines. The clusters are shown as circles and their relationship to one another indicated by the connecting lines. The gold star indicates our best estimate of your own ancient paternal clan, based on your Y-chromosome signature, which is shown towards the bottom of the chart. By the same logic that traces the maternal ancestry of a clan back to just one woman, the paternal clans were each founded by a single man. However, rather than name the founder himself, we have given the whole clan a name, often chosen from gods or mythological heroes in those parts of the world where the clan is at its strongest. Where possible, we have chosen names which begin with the letter used by the scientific researchers in the Y-chromosome consortium (YCC) to define the clan.
Three paternal clans, Amadlozi, Baatsi and Eshu, cover the majority of those people with paternal roots in Africa, and Amadlozi and Baatsi represent possibly the two most ancient paternal clans in the world, a reflection of Africa's status as the cradle of humankind. These two clans contain Y-chromosomes that are the most similar to the original "Y-chromosome Adam", who lived in Africa around 60,000 to 80,000 years ago, only around 2,000 generations ago.
Obviously, "Y-chromosome Adam" would not have been the only man alive at the time, but only his paternal lineage has survived unbroken to the present day. He in turn would have had an ancestral father, and this line reaches back millions of years to the very beginning of our species.
Amadlozi (Clade A)
The modern day members of the clan of Amadlozi are found almost exclusively in Africa. The distribution in the following countries and among the following people is: Ethiopia (45%), the Kung of South Africa (35%) and Sudan (10%). Members of this clan are rare elsewhere.
The name for the clan Amadlozi comes from the Zulu word for "ancestral spirits" (plural). These spirits live underground and one must make sacrifices to them (often of cattle) to ensure the good fortune of an enterprise.
Baatsi (Clade B)
Like the clan of Amadlozi, the modern day members of the clan of Baatsi are found almost exclusively in Africa. The distribution in the following countries and among the following peoples is: the Biaka pygmies of the Central African Republic (30%), the Fali of Mali (15%), Ethiopia (15%) and the Bamileke of Ghana (5%). Members of this clan are rare outside Africa.
The name Baatsi comes from the Bambuti people in the Congo. According to this Bambuti legend, Baatsi was the first man made by the Creator with the help of the Moon. His body was kneaded out of clay, covered in skin and filled with blood. The Creator then whispered in his ear, "You will live in the forest and beget children. Tell them of my command; they may eat of all the trees of the forest but one, the Tahu tree."
Baatsi did indeed begat many children and he warned them not to eat the fruit of the Tahu tree. When he became old, he retired to heaven. His children obeyed the rule and when they grew old they too retired to heaven. But one day, a pregnant woman was seized with an irresistible craving and desired to eat the fruit of the Tahu tree. She asked her husband to get some for her, but he refused. She persisted and her husband eventually gave in. That night he crept into the forest and picked the Tahu fruit. The Moon, however, had seen him and told the Creator who was so angry with humans that he sent death as a punishment to men.
Eshu (Clade E)
The clan of Eshu' s members are found mostly in Africa and the Middle East. The distribution in the following countries and among the following peoples is: Senegal (98%), the Bamileke of Ghana (95%), the Berbers (90%), the Biaka pygmies of the Central African Republic (70%), Sudan (70%), the Kung of South Africa (60%), the Fali of Mali and Benin (60%), Ethiopia (30%), Lebanon (30%), Greece (20%), Iran (20%) and Iraq (11 %).
Eshu is a Yoruba god from West Africa who directs traffic along the Road of Life from his abode at the Crossroads of Fortune. He owners all roads and must be placated when traveling. His is the realm of opportunity and the associated risks. Eshu is also a trickster god with a sense of humor who will often throw a spanner in the works to keep life interesting.
The vast majority of native Europeans are members of six clans; Oisin, Wodan, Re, Gilgamesh, Eshu and Nentsi. The first four of these are detailed below. The clan of Eshu has been described previously in the African section, where it is more representative. Similarly, Nentsi is described in the Central and Southern Eurasian section, below.
Oisin (Clade R)
The modern day members of the clan of Oisin are found predominantly, though not exclusively in Northern and Western Europe. The distribution in the following countries and among the following peoples is: the Basques (90%), Poland (75%), Punjab (60%), Greece (35%), Uzbekistan (30%), the Maori (30%), the Greenland Inuit (25%), the Fali of Mali (25%), the Saami (20%), Iraq (17%), the Cheyenne (15%), the Kazbegi of Georgia (10%), the Mixtecs of Central America (10%) Iran (5%), the Navajo (5%) and the Cook Islanders (5%).
The clan is named after Oisin (pronounced "O-sheen") MacFinn, the son of Fionn MacCumhaill ("Finn MacCool"), one of the greatest of all Irish, semi-mythical heroes and, with his followers the Fianna (Fenians) the prototype for the legend of King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. Oisin, or Ossian as he is also known, was, like his father, a great warrior and they shared in many adventures together. However, Oisin's main passion was for poetry, and for women.
As well as fathering the warrior Oscar with his wife Eobhir (Eve), Oisin fell in love with the fairy princess Niamh when she appeared to him, on horseback, on the banks of Lough Leane in County Kerry. Oisin leapt immediately onto her horse and they returned to the Otherworld, a land of harmony and pleasures normally barred to mere mortals. There, Oisin and Niamh had three children and lived for three hundred years, without getting a day older. Eventually, Oisin came to miss his country and his father Fionn, and begged to return. Even though Niamh warned him that things had changed since they had been in the Otherworld, Oisin was determined. Warned that if he wanted to return, he should not to set foot on Irish soil, he set off only to find things as Niamh had foretold. Fionn had died long before and his castle was in ruins. Oisin's despair made him forgetful and he dismounted to wash at a drinking trough. The moment his foot touched the ground, he aged three hundred years and collapsed, a wizened old man. When he came round he found himself in the arms of Saint Patrick, who had just arrived in Ireland. St Patrick took care of Oisin who spent his last years as a faxp.ous bard, recounting stories of Fionn and the Fianna, which drew audiences from all over Ireland.
Wodan (Clade I)
The modern day members of the clan ofWodan are found predominantly in Northern and Western Europe. The distribution in the following countries and among the following peoples is: the Saami (40%), Poland (25%), Western Russia (10%) and the Basques (5%).
Wodan is a Germanic god first described by the Romans and compared by them to the god Mercury. W odan was the god of battles and of the dead, and drove his followers into frenzy, immune from fear or pain. He has obvious associations to the god Woden, worshipped in England by the Anglo-Saxons and claimed as their ancestor, but the clearest parallel is with Odin, leader of the Aesir, the principal gods of Norse mythology. Odin was associated with magic, poetry, wealth and healing - and the dead. Worshipped by kings and warriors, his spear decided victory in battle. His dedicated followers, the Berserks, fought with wild fury at his side. Odin's hall, Valhalla, was where the Valkyries brought the bodies of fallen warriors. He rode his eight-legged horse, Sleipnir, through the sky, equipped with his decisive spear and accompanied by an eagle, a raven and a wolf. In the end, Odin was devoured by Fenriswolf during the battle between the Aesir and an army of giants and monsters at Ragnarok - the end of the world.
Re (Clade J)
The clan of Re's members are mostly found in Central and Southern Eurasia and the Middle East. The distribution in the following countries and among the following peoples is: the Kazbegi of Georgia (70%), Iraq (60%), Lebanon (30%), Iran (20%), Greece (20%), Punjab (20%), Sudan (15%), Uzbekistan (10%) and the Berbers (5%).
Before Egypt had human kings, it was ruled by the god Re (or Ra), God of the Sun. Re oversaw a peaceful paradise and his only task was to travel occasionally round his domain with his retinue of lesser gods. As Re got older, he eventually tired of his responsibilities towards his human subjects. His bones turned silver, his body to gold and his hair turned the blue of lapis lazuli. These changes led some to doubt his capacity as their leader and Re sent the goddess Hathor to punish them. Hathor embarked on a savage slaughter and had to be recalled. As time passed, Re fused with other gods Atum and Amun, and eventually transformed into the ancestor of the pharaohs themselves.
Gilgamesh (Clade G)
The modern day members of the clan of Gilgamesh are found predominantly, though not exclusively in Central Eurasia and the Middle East. The distribution in the following countries and among the following peoples is: Iran (50%), Lebanon (30%), the Greenland Inuit (30%), Ethiopia (10%), the Kazbegi of Georgia (10%), the Berbers (5%) and Iraq (2%).
Gilgamesh is the main character in the ancient Sumerian epic tale of kings and heroes recounted in the early days of Babylon about, 1700 BC, and one based, at least in part, on a real person. Stamped on clay tablets, the epic of Gilgamesh is the oldest known written story. Gilgamesh ruled over the Mesopotamian city of Uruk, the predecessor of biblical Ur, which he is said to have built with his own hands. Every year he went through a ritual marriage with the goddess Inana, thereby ensuring the fertility of the city's fields and its women. Like many epic heroes, Gilgamesh embarked on a lifelong quest, encountering sex and violence, love and death, friendship and parting along the way. And like many epic journeys, it ended in both failure and redemption.
Despite his legendary strength, courage, military brilliance and physical prowess, (he was supposedly sixteen feet tall), he had one serious weakness - an insatiable appetite for women. Although expected to care for the inhabitants of the city, he behaved, according to the epic, like a 'rampant wild bull'. He would continuously pursue 'young girls, the daughters of warriors or the brides of young men'. To counteract this troublesome indulgence, the gods created the wild man Enkidu as a rival, who, after he had defeated Gilgamesh in a wrestling match, became his companion on his journey in search of immortality. They set out together to find Ut-napishti, the only human ever to have become immortal.
After many adventures, and after the death of Enkidu, Gilgamesh found Ut-napishti alive and well despite his great age. Ut-napishti told Gilgamesh the story of the Great Flood, in a close parallel with the biblical account, in which he takes the role of Noah and saves mankind and animal life from extinction. For this the gods rewarded Ut-napishti and his wife with immortality. Having heard this, Gilgamesh abandoned all hope of immortality for himself - his efforts were nothing compared to Utnapishti's achievements - and disconsolate, he made his way back to Uruk. He accepted his own mortality and spent his remaining days improving his own city.
The Americas and Greenland
The members of one clan - Quetzalcoatl - dominate the native peoples of the Americas and Greenland. Members of this clan arrived in the Americas around 15,000 years ago and can be found in the modern day inhabitants of Northern, Central and Southern America, and Greenland, but also to a lesser degree in the peoples of Eastern Eurasia. Other clans represented in these peoples are: Oisin and Gilgamesh (described previously in the Western Eurasian section), Nentsi (described in the Central and Southern Eurasian section, below), Maui (described in the Eastern Eurasian and Oceania section, below) and Eshu (described previously in the African section, above).
Quetzalcoatl (Clade Q)
The modern day members of the clan of Quetzalcoatl are found predominantly in Northern, Central and Southern America. The distribution in the following countries and among the following peoples is: the Cayapa of Peru (99%), the Mixtecs of Central America (90%), the Navajo of the Southern and Western USA (90%), the Makiritare of Northern Brazil (70%), the Cheyenne or the Northern and Central USA (60%), the Greenland Inuit (40%), the Eskimos of North Eastern Siberia (40%) and the Evenks of Northern China (10%).
Quetzalcoatl was one of the most powerful and complex Aztec gods, and was usually depicted as a feathered serpent. One of the celestial creators inherited from the early Mesoamerican civilisations, he appears in many incarnations. As the wind god Ececatl, he brought welcome rain clouds to the Mexican plateau. Indeed, he is attributed with the invention of agriculture itself, and also of the calendar. As the semi-human priest-king Topiltzin, he decided to sacrifice himself rather than be overthrown by his rival, Tezcatlipoca. Adorned in all his finery he stepped onto his funeral pyre and set light to it. As his body was consumed by the flames, his heart rose into the heavens to become Ce Acatl, the Morning Star. However, he made a promise to return to Earth to establish an era of lasting peace and harmony. By a cruel irony, as the Spaniard Cortes made his way through Mexico, the Aztecs believed him to be the returning Quetzalcoatl and offered no resistance.
Central and Southern Eurasia
The people of Central and Southern Eurasia are predominantly members of seven clans: Oisin, Re, Maui, Yi, Himalaya, Lhotse and Nentsi. Oisin and Re have been described previously in the Western Eurasian section, above and Maui and Yi are described in the Eastern Eurasian and Oceania section, below. Himalaya, Lhotse and Nentsi are described in this section as they occur almost nowhere else on Earth.
Himalaya (Clade H)
The modern day members of the clan of Himalaya (pronounced "Him-aal-ee-ah") are found almost exclusively in Central and Southern Eurasia. The distribution in the following countries and among the following peoples is: Kazakhstan (7%) and the people of the Punjab (6%). The clan is almost unknown elsewhere.
The clan of Himalaya is named after the mountain god of Hindu mythology who shares its name with the great mountain range. Also known as Himavan or Himava, he is the personification of the mountain whose name means "snow top". Himalaya was the father of the goddess Parvati, whose name means "daughter of the mountains", who was the consort of Shiva. Himalaya was also the father of the goddess Ganga, once a consort of Vishnu, before herself also becoming a consort of Shiva.
Lhotse (Clade L)
The modern day members of this rare clan are found in Southern Eurasia and the Middle East. The distribution in the following countries and among the following peoples is: the people of the Punjab (10%), Uzbekistan (5%) Iran (5%) and the Lebanon (2%). The clan is almost unknown elsewhere.
This clan is named after the fourth highest peak in the Himalayan mountain range. Lhotse is located just to the south of Mount Everest (longitude 86.56.03, latitude 27.57.45) and was first climbed in May 1956. Lhotse is also known as Lo-tzu Feng and Khumbu Lhotse.
Nentsi (Clade N)
The clan of Nentsi's members are mostly found in Northern and Central Eurasia. The distribution in the following countries and among the following peoples is: the Forest Nentsi of Western Siberia (95%), the Khants of Western Siberia (75%), the Eskimos of Eastern Siberia (55%), the Saami (40%), the Buryats of Eastern Siberia (30%), the Eastern Evenks of Central Siberia (20% ), Western Russia (15%), the Evens of Eastern Siberia (10%), the Northern Han of China (10%), Mongolia (10%) and the people of the Punjab (10%).
The clan is named after the Siberian tribe whose members are almost all in this clan. The Nentsi lifestyle is basic and hasn't changed much for hundreds of years. Their traditional occupations, hunting, fishing, reindeer-breeding and herding, are linked to their nomadic way of life. The temperature is often well below freezing so the Nentsi wrap themselves in reindeer fur, shelter in their Tuma (a kind of tent) and melt the ice for drinking water. Their language reflects their life on the tundra. Their year traditionally begins in November with "the hunt for the polar fox". The birth of the first reindeer fawns marks the start of spring and the beginning of summer is known as nyarkanze iriy, "the month of the flowering grasses."
Eastern Eurasia and Oceania
The native peoples of Eastern Eurasia and Oceania are predominantly members of four clans: Maui, Thang-la, Mandala and Yi. Other clans represented in these peoples include: Oisin (described previously in the Western Eurasian section), Nentsi (described previously in the Central and Southern Eurasian section) and Quetzaicoatl (described previously in The Americas and Greenland section).
Maui (Clade C)
The clan of Maui's members are mostly found in Eastern Eurasia and Oceania. The distribution in the following countries and among the following peoples is: the Cook Islanders (80%), the Evenks of Eastern Siberia (75%), the people of the Sandy Desert in Western Australia (70%), the people of Arnhemland in Northern Australia (70%), the Eastern Evens of Central Siberia (70%) Kazakhstan (65%), the Buryats of Central Siberia (60%), Mongolia (50%), Tahiti (50%), the Evenks of China (45%), the Maori (40%), the coastal people of Papua New Guinea (25%), the highland people of West New Guinea (25%), Uzbekistan (20%), the Cheyenne (15%), Philippines (10%) and Malaya (10%).
Maui is one of the most popular heroes of Polynesian mythology. Maui the Trickster was born prematurely as the result of a miscarriage and thrown into the sea. Saved by the gods he was taught the skills and magic that he subsequently used to cause havoc wherever he went. His first stunt was to slow down the sun by beating it with the jawbone of his dead grandmother. To the common man, Maui was a hero, doing such useful things as fishing up whole islands from the sea. He also showed humans how to make barbed fishing hooks and spears.
However, not all his tricks turned out so well, and one day he inadvertently turned his brother-in-law into the first dog. Maui died while trying to gain immortality for mortal humans from the goddess of death, Hine-nui-te-Po. His mother had told him that if he was to crawl through the goddess's womb and out through her mouth, then she would die and death itself would cease to exist. Unfortunately, he got stuck! His friends, who were watching, laughed out loud and woke the goddess, who crushed Maui to death inside her body before he could escape.
Thang-la (Clade D)
The modern day members of the clan of Thang-la are found predominantly in Southern and Eastern Eurasia. The distribution in the following countries is: Tibet (55%), Japan (35%) and Korea (5%). The clan is rare elsewhere.
Thang-la is the name of the Mountain God who rules over the 700 mile long Thang-la mountain chain in Tibet, a place believed to be the home of over thirty gods. The mountain range connects Kathmandu to Lhasa with the tallest of the peaks, Shisha Pangma, being 8,013 metres above sea level. The local people believe that when an "undesirable person" enters Tibet, a wind blows over the pass and the freezes them there.
Mandala (Clade M)
The modern day members of this very rare clan are found exclusively in New Guinea with the following distribution: Western highlands (75%) and Eastern coast (30%).
The clan of Mandala is named after the perpetually snow-capped mountain (4,701 meters/15,300 feet) in the Jaya Wijaya range of Irian Jaya, the western Indonesian province of the world's second largest island, New Guinea.
Yi (Clade 0)
The clan of Yi's members are mostly found in Eastern Eurasia and Oceania. The distribution in the following countries and among the following peoples is: Taiwan (95%), Java (90%), Malaya (70%), Korea (70%), Japan (50%), Tibet (40%), Tahiti (35%), the Evenks of Northern China (30%), Mongolia (25%), Kazakhstan (10%), the people of the Eastern coast of Papua New Guinea (10%) and the Cook Islanders (5%).
Yi is a great hero of Chinese mythology, who was sent from heaven to rid the earth of a long and crippling drought. The greatest of heavenly archers, he was despatched to Yao, the first recognisably human emperor, and taken to view the scorched fields, baked by the power of ten suns. Taken to a high tower where he could get a clear view of the sky, he fitted an arrow to his bowstring and loosed it at the easternmost sun. It sped straight to its target and struck the sun as an arrow strikes a bird. The light was extinguished and black feathers floated down to earth. Cheered on by growing crowds, he shot through the remaining suns one by one until only the westernmost remained. This he left to illuminate the world, thereby relieving the drought.
After this triumph, Yi was constantly summoned to rescue the world from disaster and his labours are comparable to those of the Greek hero, Hercules. With his mighty bow, he calmed storms by shooting the wind god, Fei Lan, in the knee, made floods subside by loosing an arrow into the turbulence, defeated the giant, Chiseltooth, and killed a huge water serpent that was whipping the waters of a lake into a dangerous whirlpool. Though these feats made him a hero on Earth, his killing of the nine sunbirds, the errant children of the supreme god, Di Jun, caused him to be banished from heaven for ever.
Confined to a mortal existence, he set out to the palace of the Xi Wang Mu, Queen Mother of the West, to beg the elixir of immortality, distilled from the peach trees that grew in the palace gardens.'She gave him a tiny pill of the elixir, so concentrated that it glowed with power. Once home, he was immediately dispatched on other errands by Emperor Yao, and hid the pill, wrapped in silk, in the rafters of his house. While he was away, his wife, Heng E, noticed the strange light and found the pill. Just as Yi returned, she swallowed the pill by mistake and floated heavenward out of reach. She continued upward until she reached the moon, where she remained, unhappy and unwittingly immortal.
Yi did not forget her and continuously tried to find ways to join her. Finally, forgiven by the gods, Yi was readmitted to heaven, but to the palace of the sun and not the moon. He was, however, allowed to visit his stranded wife once every full moon. Yi was eventually killed by a young archer, Feng Meng, whom he had taught. Jealous of his master's supremacy with the bow, Feng Meng was eventually driven to bludgeoning Yi to death when, in an unguarded moment, Yi had lain his bow aside.